Guide for Authors
A concise and factual is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 7 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and”, “of”). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply caption separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Please ensure that every Reference cited in the text is also present in the Reference list (and vice versa). Any References cited in the abstract must be given in full.
In the text, refer to them using square brackets and use Vancouver style
Writing a reference list in the Vancouver style
When writing a reference list in Vancouver style, you need to remember the following:
Dissertation and master thesis
Surname Initial(s). Title [type of publication]. Place: Publisher; Year.
Hasund IK. The discourse markers like in English and liksom in Norwegian teenage language : a corpus-based, cross-linguistic study [dissertation]. Bergen: Universitetet i Bergen; 2003.
Author/editor. Title. Place: Publisher; Year. Title of report series.
Arbeids- og administrasjonsdepartementet. Arbeidslivsutvalget. Et arbeidsliv for trygghet, inkludering og vekst. Oslo: Statens forvaltningstjeneste; 2004. NOU 2004:5.
Author. Title [Internet]. Place: Publisher; Date of publication [date updated; cited date]. Available from: http://..
1. Kwan I, Mapstone J. Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Accid Anal Prev. 2004;36(3):305-12. DOI: 10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00008-3
2. Dybvig DD, Dybvig M. Det tenkende mennesket. Filosofi- og vitenskapshistorie med vitenskapsteori. 2nd ed. Trondheim: Tapir akademisk forlag; 2003.
3. Beizer JL, Timiras ML. Pharmacology and drug management in the elderly. In: Timiras PS, editor. Physiological basis of aging and geriatrics. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1994. p. 279-84.
4. Fermann G, editor. International politics of climate change: key issues and critical actors. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press; 1997.
Please note that the reference list always begins on a new page.